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公开课1187:WindowsServer2008新特性

2017-3-27 12:08| 投稿: lofor| |来自: 互联网

摘要: 10、自修复NTFS文件系统从DOS时代开始,文件系统出错就意味着相应的卷必须下线修复,而在WS2K8中,一个新的系统服务会在后台默默工作,检测文件系统错误,并且可以在无需关闭服务器的状态下自动将其修复。有了这一新 ...

10、自修复NTFS文件系统

从DOS时代开始,文件系统出错就意味着相应的卷必须下线修复,而在WS2K8中,一个新的系统服务会在后台默默工作,检测文件系统错误,并且可以在无需关闭服务器的状态下自动将其修复。

有了这一新服务,在文件系统发生错误的时候,服务器只会暂时无法访问部分数据,整体运行基本不受影响,所以CHKDSK基本就可以退休了。

9、并行Session创建

如果你有一个终端服务器系统,或者多个用户同时登陆了家庭系统,这些就是Session。在WS2K8之前,Session的创建都是逐一操作的,对于大型系统而言就是个瓶颈,比如周一清晨数百人返回工作的时候,不少人就必须等待Session初始化。

Vista和WS2K8加入了新的Session模型,可以同时发起至少4个,而如果服务器有四颗以上的处理器,还可以同时发起更多。举例来说,如果你家里有一个媒体中心,那各个家庭成员就可以同时在各自的房间里打开媒体终端、同时从Vista服务器上得到视频流,而且速度不会受到影响。

8、快速关机服务

Windows的一大历史问题就是关机过程缓慢。在Windows XP里,一旦关机开始,系统就会开始一个20秒钟的计时,之后提醒用户是否需要手动关闭程序,而在Windows Server里,这一问题的影响会更加明显。

到了WS2K8,20秒钟的倒计时被一种新服务取代,可以在应用程序需要被关闭的时候随时、一直发出信号。开发人员开始怀疑这种新方法会不会过多地剥夺应用程序的权利,但现在他们已经接受了它,认为这是值得的。

7、核心事务管理器(KTM)

这项功能对开发人员来说尤其重要,因为它可以大大减少甚至消除最经常导致系统

注册表或者文件系统崩溃的原因:多个线程试图访问同一资源。

在Vista核心中也有KTM这一新组件,其目的是方便进行大量的错误恢复工作,而且过程几乎是透明的,而KTM之所以可以做到这一点,是因为它可以作为事务客户端接入的一个事务管理器进行工作。

6、SMB2网络文件系统

很久很久以前,Windows就引入了SMB,作为一网络文件系统,不过SMB现在已经太老了,历史使命已经完成,所以WS2K8采用了SMB2,以便更好地管理体积越来越大的媒体文件。

在微软的内部测试中,SMB2媒体服务器的速度可以达到Windows Server 2003的四倍到五倍,相当于4000%的效率提升。

5、随机地址空间分布(ASLR)

ASLR在64位Vista里就已出现,它可以确保操作系统的任何两个并发实例每次都会载入到不同的内存地址上。

微软表示,恶意软件其实就是一堆不受规矩的代码,不会按照操作系统要求的正常程序执行,但如果它想在用户磁盘上写入文件,就必须知道系统服务身在何处。在32位Windows XP SP2上,如果恶意软件需要调用KERNEL32.DLL,该文件每次都会被载入同一个内存空间地址,因此非常容易恶意利用。

但有了ASLR,每一个系统服务的地址空间都是随机的,因此恶意软件想要轻松找到它们,基本没戏。

4、Windows硬件错误架构(WHEA)

最终,微软决定将错误规范化,确切地说是应用程序向系统汇报发现错误的协议要实现标准化了。

目前错误报告的一大问题就是设备报错的方式多种多样,各种硬件系统之间没有一种标准,因此编写应用程序的时候很难集合所有的错误资源,并统一呈现,这就意味着要编写许多特定代码,针对各种特定情况。

而在WS2K8里,所有的硬件相关错误都使用同样的界面汇报给系统,第三方软件就能轻松管理、消除错误,管理工具的发展也会更轻松。

3、虚拟化

尽管微软精简了其虚拟化软件“Viridian”,但这仍是企业的一个福音,可以有效减少总体成本。尽管VMware在虚拟机领域独树一帜,但Viridian得以让Intel和AMD都提供了对基于硬件的虚拟化的支持,从而提供虚拟硬件支持平台,而这是VMware所难以做到的。

据IDC统计,美国企业已经在根本用不到的处理器资源上浪费了千百亿美元,但这并不是他们的错,而是操作系统的管理问题导致最多85%的CPU资源就经常被闲置。WS2K8加虚拟化的一大目标就是加强闲置资源利用,减少浪费。

2、PowerShell命令行

PowerShell原计划作为Vista的一部分,但只是作为免费下载的增强附件,随后又成了Exchange Server 2007的关键组件,接下来又将是WS2K8不可或缺的一个成员。这个新的命令行工具可以作为图形界面管理的补充,也可以彻底取代它。

Windows Server部门总管Iain McDonald宣称:“如果一切可以由我决定,我很乐意把PowerShell设置成Windows的默认外壳。我太喜欢这东西了。”

在下月初的TechEd 2007大会上,微软会对PowerShell的一些新应用进行展示。

1、Server Core

这才是微软真正的变化之处。如果你是Unix和Linux管理员,可能会对在受保护环境中扮演DHCP和DNS服务器角色的低能耗、虚拟化、无图形界、只需一个终端管理的服务器系统非常熟悉,但Windows也可以这么做了。

作为服务器操作系统,Windows Server一直以来颇为诟病的地方就是,它是“Windows”,因为管理员根本不需要安装图形驱动、DirectX、ADO、OLE等东西,毕竟他们不需要运行用户程序;而且,图形界面一直是影响Windows稳定性的重要因素。

从WS2K8开始,这些东西都将成为安装时的可选项。目前的Beta 3版本已经可以处理八个角色,最终正式版还会更多,比如文件服务器、域控制器、DHCP服务器、DNS服务器等等,其定位也非常清楚:安全稳定的小型专用服务器。

另外,如果配置合理,管理员也可以远程管理无图形界面的Server Core安装,只需开启TCP 3389端口即可。

PowerShell也可以在Server Core上运行,但很显然,图形界面程序都不行,.NET Framework也不会被支持,游戏自然就不用提了。


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