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中国云市场竞争:一场刚开始的马拉松_第一财经

2017-4-29 07:34| 投稿: caiflyer |来自: 互联网

摘要: 4月10日,工信部印发了《云计算发展三年行动计划(2017~2019年) 》。据统计,2015年,我国云计算产业规模约1500亿元,同比增长超过30%。云计算已经不是时下热捧概念,但却在落地迅猛发展中。在同花顺里,标注为云计算 ...

4月10日,工信部印发了《云计算发展三年行动计划(2017~2019年) 》。据统计,2015年,我国云计算产业规模约1500亿元,同比增长超过30%。

云计算已经不是时下热捧概念,但却在落地迅猛发展中。在同花顺里,标注为云计算的上市公司已经有75家。

“我们曾经开玩笑说硬件也要向云计算转型,软件也要向云计算转型,系统集成商也要向云计算转型,大家都要向云计算转型。从企业的转型来讲,它不是简单的产品更换,这跟企业的经营管理模式,跟企业创新的文化氛围、创新的能力等各个方面都是紧密结合的,不是简单地说这个企业到底是传统做硬件的,还是传统做软件的。” 曙光公司高级副总裁聂华接受第一财经记者采访时表示。

转型

根据工业和信息化部制定《软件和信息技术服务业发展规划(2016~2020年)》,提出将研究制定新形势下适应产业发展新特点的政策措施,加大对软件和信息技术服务业发展的财政资金支持,着力研发云计算、大数据、移动互联网、物联网等新兴领域关键软件产品和解决方案,加快培育新业态和新模式。

这一点从诸多公司的年报中就可以品读一二。比如浪潮软件(600756.SH)的公司经营计划之中就明确提到要“切实践行公司云计算、大数据发展战略,不断优化运营模式,加强目标管理、过程管理,不断向管理要效益,推动公司业务全面向云计算转型”。东软集团(600718.SH)也提到“以企业为主体的产业创新体系进一步完善,研发投入持续加大,在重点领域形成创新引领能力和明显竞争优势。基础软件协同创新取得突破,形成若干具有竞争力的平台解决方案并实现规模应用。云计算、大数据、移动互联网、物联网、信息安全等领域的创新发展向更高层次跃升”。

据工业和信息化部统计,“十二五”期间,我国软件和信息技术服务业收入从2010年的1.3万亿元增长至2015年的4.3万亿元,年均增速27%。

随着云计算、大数据时代的到来,中国电子政务已进入以云计算促进资源整合、业务协同和集成应用的新阶段,以云计算为基础的电子政务应用建设已进入快速成长期。

2016年,中科曙光(603019.SH)推出“数据中国加速计划”,在业界提出了以品牌连锁模式发展城市云中心,在全国范围内招募“城市合伙人”,大幅加快了曙光城市云中心的落地数量。

通过采用独资、合资等多种方式,中科曙光或者进行主要出资或进行授权,或者以品牌、知识产权参股,以此组建“本土+总部+外部专家”三级技术支持与运维团队。

根据2016年度报告,中科曙光2016年营业收入43.60亿元,同比增长19.06%,其中软件与服务的营收增长59.54%;利润总额2.81亿元,同比增长39.08%。公司由硬件制造商逐步向服务运营商转型的战略得到了顺利实施,云计算与大数据等相关产品的营业收入占比不断提高。

但聂华也坦言,云计算在财务报表结构里面占比变化并不明显。他解释称,云服务初期几年把报表收入压扁了,比如说同样一个服务,可能要分五年付服务费的话,体现在当年的财务报表上就变成了五分之一。同样的一个业务规模,云服务对报表当期的影响会变得非常小,但是持续性会非常好,增长会比较快。在曙光探索的模型中,第一年是投入期,第二年会要求云中心的业务持平,至少从第三年开始,模型才会转正。

“曙光的云计算业务正在成长期,短期内期待报表发生重大变化也是不符合客观规律的。从曙光自身来讲,我们在这个领域中幸运的是比它们更早看到了这个市场,耕耘了七八年时间,这个耕耘不会没有收获。我们既对市场非常有信心,同时也会非常认真严肃对待市场新的进入者可能带来的竞争和挑战。”聂华说。

竞争

除了敢于公布2016年营收为8.3亿美元的阿里云,还有不惜以一分钱竞标的腾讯云,这一市场的进入者还有很多。

记者采访中了解到,电信运营商的云计算业务从2010年前后开始起步,从最初自用的私有云系统,到后来针对政企、开发者客户提供云计算服务,开始借助于带宽等资源优势和深耕通信产业等优势,分食云计算市场。

三大运营商目前都布局了多个数据中心,并在相关品牌下开展公有云、混合云等业务。在资源层面,云计算虽然依赖于存储和计算,但同时也依赖于网络传输,作为深耕基础网络服务的通信业巨头,运营商的带宽资源成为其不可替代的核心竞争力之一。

面对如此多元的竞争对手,去年开始走向商业化道路的百度云总经理尹世明向第一财经记者表示:“竞争是件好事儿。”在他看来,依托以前的积累,需要把技术优势转化为价值优势。

“云市场竞争是一场马拉松,现在来看发展有先后,但在巨大的机遇和市场面前,现在的差距并不能决定长远的市场格局。” 尹世明说。

事实上,公有云和私有云的盈利模式并不相同,这些厂商未必在同一领域中竞争。

私有云更看重边界的保护,不允许数据进行横向的、随意的流动。安全等级的防护、数据安全是私有云很关注的技术。安全审查要求、安全态势感知、入侵检测要求等方面会跟公有云形成显著的差别。这类客户往往是政府部门或大型企业构建自身网络需要。

相比之下,公有云市场更注重开放性,盈利模式也会更清晰。很多时候是通过比如数据入口或者通过数据出口变成提供定餐、订票、购买东西的服务,或者在社交圈子里面一个定向推送广告的服务。出于对导流、引流的需要,这样的服务是中小企业最为看好的。

正因如此,提供云服务企业的不同情况,大家的发力点也不尽相同。

聂华表示更为看重业务的增长,而不会短期内盲目地拼市场规模, “企业降价进一个市场的时候,看到一个技术趋势,尤其像中国电信、腾讯这么有实力的企业要进入一个市场不会是心血来潮,企业也是在原有的竞争环境中迫于转型,认为原有竞争环境太激烈,尝试新的市场突破。但无论从历史的发展和各方面来看,这种情况都不会永远成为常态。所以我们的基本判断是,特殊历史时期、特殊项目的特殊呈现,它不会导致主流的变化。”

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