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12国科学家准备进入地幔:生命的奇迹,还是走向作死的灭亡?

2017-12-17 00:27| 投稿: xiaotiger |来自: 互联网

摘要: 地球内部存在两个主要的间断面:1.位于地表下平均30多公里处,称莫霍洛维奇间断面;2.位于地表下约2900公里处,称谷登堡-维舍特间断面。这两个间断面就把地球内部分为三个圈层:地壳、地幔、地核。地壳是固体地球的 ...

地球内部存在两个主要的间断面:1.位于地表下平均30多公里处,称莫霍洛维奇间断面;2.位于地表下约2900公里处,称谷登堡-维舍特间断面。这两个间断面就把地球内部分为三个圈层:地壳、地幔、地核。

地壳是固体地球的最外一圈,主要由硅酸盐岩石构成,其范围从地表到莫霍面。厚度变化较大,大洋地壳较薄,平均厚6公里,最薄处不到5公里;大陆地壳较厚,平均厚35公里,最厚处可达70公里。

地幔位于莫霍面和谷登堡面之间,厚2900公里。以1000公里深度为界,地幔可分为上、下地幔。上地幔中,离地表100-150公里范围内温度最高,近于岩石的熔点,处于塑性流动状态,称为软流圈。从谷登堡面以下至地心部分为地核,厚3473公里。据推测,地核物质由铁、镍组成,温度和压力非常高,密度大,可达每立方厘米9.98-13克。

现在,中美英等12国科学家正在西南印度洋一处名为“亚特兰蒂斯浅滩”的地方打穿地壳与地幔的边界,这是人类历史上首次钻穿壳幔边界。

“决心号”已经起航,这是一艘专门用来进行地质钻探的大型船舶。一直钻石探油的它这次也有了一个极负历史意义的任务:承载这美英中等12个国家的30名科学家钻破大洋背脊。如果任务顺利,科学家们下一步将逐渐增大钻探深度,3000米、5000米最终冲破莫霍面一探地球内部的究竟。

不过这个举动也引起了很多地质学家的担忧,因为那个地方除了是地壳厚度最薄的地方外还是地震以及火山活动最为活跃的区域,如果有什么没有被科学家预料到的因素存在,这次钻探可能会引发一系列的灾难,板块之间的摩擦有可能会骤然减小,以此引发的人工地震或许会造成比04年印度洋海啸更具破坏力的巨大波浪。

有时候觉得有些探索得适可而止,不要惹怒了我们的地球!

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}, shareInfo: { shareUrl: https://m.toutiao.com/group/6498267401925165582/, abstract: 地球内部存在两个主要的间断面:1.位于地表下平均30多公里处,称莫霍洛维奇间断面;2.位于地表下约2900公里处,称谷登堡-维舍特间断面。这两个间断面就把地球内部分为三个圈层:地壳、地幔、地核。地壳是固体地球的最外一圈,主要由硅酸盐岩石构成,其范围从地表到莫霍面。
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