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160多年前的"VR眼镜"带给今天的VR工程师们新的灵感

2018-1-31 22:58| 投稿: xiaotiger |来自: 互联网

摘要: 来自维多利亚时代的立体眼镜正在启发今天的VR工程师们,即使拿到现在,这些立体图片也可以使用谷歌Cardboard来观看。而这款立体眼镜,诞生于160多年前。上图就是诞生于19世纪的古老的立体镜,或者说是3D查看器。其中 ...

来自维多利亚时代的立体眼镜正在启发今天的VR工程师们,即使拿到现在,这些立体图片也可以使用谷歌Cardboard来观看。而这款立体眼镜,诞生于160多年前。

上图就是诞生于19世纪的古老的立体镜,或者说是3D查看器。其中的立体照片卡展示了位于宾夕法尼亚州的Raymond Kill瀑布。

VR/AR行业里一个广为流传的说法是,一些世界级的工程师正在探索如何让一头鲸鱼看起来就像是从你的房间地板里跳出来一样。创作这种虚拟的奇幻世界貌似会有一个大市场,比如开发VR游戏,或者增强现实应用。

但是摄影公司Getty Images正在和像谷歌这样的公司合作,在发明于160余年前的技术中找到了新的灵感。

在19世纪,伦敦的Stereoscopic公司开发了一款形似头显的设备,可以使用它来观看从不同角度拍摄的两张照片,这可以说是第一代的VR设备了。

上图是Stereoscopic的立体镜和图片卡。

“当时的摄影技术还很低下,”Getty Images的VR和沉浸内容总监、编辑内容高级总监Anthony Holland Parkin说道。“它提供了一种沉浸式的体验,最吸引我的是,它和今天的谷歌Cardboard是非常相似的,可以说它是谷歌Cardboard非常早期的一个先驱。这些来自那个年代的图片是非常早的娱乐内容,并且在当时也极为流行。其中最流行的图片之一是尼亚加拉大瀑布的走钢丝表演,售出了大概10万份。”

在1851年将近3个月的时间里,巴黎和纽约大约售出了25万台立体镜。

现在看来,你会认为这种设备是比较粗糙的,甚至有点像那种一次性的3D眼镜,或者View-Master之类的玩具。但是Parkin说,这种设备与现代的VR头显的共同点远超你的想象。

“目前还有大概15000台这种设备,能够保存到现在,可以说是非常珍贵的。我们还可以在VR头显中观看这些内容,比如可以使用谷歌Cardboard,让这些图片重获生机,”Parkin说道。“实际上我正在创作全新的视频版本,但我所使用的是最新的技术,来创作同样的体验。”

可观看的内容也多种多样,比如伦敦斯特兰德区的沉浸式视图,或者会冒出来一个鬼魂的恐怖体验。

上图制作于1894年,在图中,背着复合板材质广告的人们站在斯特兰德区剧场附近,右侧是Savoy街,滨河圣母教堂位于图片的背景中。

“我喜欢的是,这张图所拍到的斯特兰德区会把你带到那个年代。这是一个保存那个年代的记忆的方法,并且这种场景是无法重建的,”Parkin说道。

上图制作于1865年,图片中这间屋子的前主人Jim Stubbs的鬼魂,出现在了正在吃饭的夫妻二人面前。

从16世纪开始,手绘图就被用在立体技术中,直到20世纪60年代,计算机科学家们才能够创建大部分目前所使用的虚拟现实技术的框架。但是除了国防工业的承包商,或者迪士尼和任天堂这样的大企业之外,很少有企业能够有这种技术资源,来推动内容和设备的进步。

上图制作于1865年,这是一张静物写生的立体卡片,其中包含了水果和鲜花。

“经过这么多年,我们见证了这项技术的进步。迪士尼很早就拍摄过360°视频,可以带着你环游美国,观看起来是十分震撼的。”

2012年时的Oculus Rift原型机,图自Engadget

Lucas工作室将2012年视作转折点,在这一年Oculus的创始人Palmer Luckey将电池、半导体元件和手机屏幕等组件组合在一起,创作出了新的虚拟现实体验,并且比以前的VR头显要更加易用,且价格低廉。

Parkin说,下一个阶段的虚拟现实设备将会提供更大范围的移动能力,用户可以在其中自由走动,并且感受到他们触摸的物体。但是像Getty Images这样的公司正在研究更加简单的技术,来让人们接触到VR。比如与谷歌合作VR180这种全新的VR视频格式。

正如其名字,VR180这种“半全景”格式意味着,当你戴上VR头显时,能看到的只有180度的半幅全景画面。相比传统的360°全景视频,其优势在于更容易拍摄、剪辑和传播,而用户的接受程度也会更高。

“现在,我们已经有了非常高质量的视觉体验设备,有着很大的屏幕,能够提供多媒体体验,”Parkin说。“移动技术的发展,加上简单易用的内容,让任何人都可以接触VR。”

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