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二维码取代NFC刷地铁,是技术的倒退吗?

2018-2-5 11:55| 投稿: lofor |来自: 互联网

摘要: 用 NFC 还是二维码,最终可能取决于微信支付宝们的站队。 NFC 刷卡体验好,二维码通用性强,手机公交卡的未来「花落谁家」现在还真不好说。 2017 年度公交卡支持城市最多的手机非小米莫属了,截止到今年 1 月,小 ...

用 NFC 还是二维码,最终可能取决于微信支付宝们的站队。

NFC 刷卡体验好,二维码通用性强,手机公交卡的未来「花落谁家」现在还真不好说。

2017 年度公交卡支持城市最多的手机非小米莫属了,截止到今年 1 月,小米 6 等具备 NFC 功能的手机已经支持开通北京、上海、广州、深圳、武汉、苏州、杭州、重庆、吉林、广西等多个城市的手机公交卡。

而且如果你最近新买了一台小米手机,可以不必开通北京公交一卡通,开通一张小米新推出的京津冀互通卡——到天津坐地铁也很方便了。

NFC

小米的这一做法代表了手机公交卡中很重要的一大「流派」——NFC。

更为具体的分类是利用手机的 NFC 功能,在手机里模拟出一张甚至多张公交卡,这在公交卡发卡机构那里被称作空中发卡。

由于这种手机公交卡与实体卡除了载体没有什么区别,所以公交卡享受的优惠比如北京地铁每月累计乘车 100 元后票价打八折,手机公交卡一样可以享受。

按照实体卡通行的做法,这种 NFC 手机公交卡也是非实名卡,丢失不能挂失——如果别人捡到你的手机,在你远程锁定之前可以直接刷你的公交卡。刷机不影响公交卡,换手机不能迁移公交卡。目前只有深圳通支持了退卡移资。

其他 Android 手机厂商比如华为、三星和一加也用了类似的方法提供了手机公交卡,这其中的奥秘就在于小米、三星、华为开通手机公交卡的前提是你必须先开通 MiPay、 SamsungPay、HuaweiPay。注册和实名认证这些 Pay 之后,你才能在钱包应用里找到相应的开卡入口。

厂商们的小心思在这个开卡流程中「暴露无遗」:

Android 手机厂商支持手机公交卡是为了推广自家的手机钱包和云闪付。

相比与银联 2017 年疯狂砸钱,通过吸引你来薅羊毛的方式推广云闪付,小米、华为、三星们在钱包里加入公交卡的功能成本显然更低,而且更有效——

「小米手机可以刷公交卡,再也不需要取现金充公交卡了,这么方便的功能赶快开通。」

一旦有了这个开端,你很快就会落入那个流程里:开通手机自带的「Pay」,绑定银行卡,开通公交卡,用绑定的银行卡充值。

你成功开通了公交卡,手机厂商们的手机钱包和云闪付用户也增加了一个。小米钱包这样的 APP 成为你打开频率仅次于微信支付宝的 APP,钱包里的话费充值、贷款、信用卡还款这样的业务也就不愁没有用户了。

刷卡体验上,NFC 手机公交卡可能是最接近实体公交卡的了。走到地铁闸机旁边,掏出手机,贴近刷卡区域,滴一下就可以过闸机了。

整个流程与公交卡无异,只是从口袋里掏出的公交卡换成了手机。而且凡是公交卡能通过的卡机,你的手机都可以通过。

推动 NFC 手机公交卡的,除了手机厂商,入局者还有微信和支付宝。

NFC 手机公交卡的用户体验这么好,微信和支付宝肯定也不会放弃这块「蛋糕」。而且论与各地公交集团的谈判和推广能力,微信和支付宝肯定优于手机厂商们。

比如最近微信推出了「交通微云卡」小程序,通过与 Android 手机的 NFC「联动」,实现手机公交卡的功能。

但是,做 NFC 解决方案的支付宝很快就发现这是一个大坑,支付宝 NFC 的负责人曹寅 2014 年就曾亲自在虎嗅网撰文表示:

「NFC 的产业链实在是太长了,整合难度巨大。在整个生态里,有 NFC 芯片厂、安全芯片厂、手机厂、TSM 平台、一卡通公司、系统集成商、卡组织或行业监管机构、POS 终端厂,还有支付宝钱包这样的大型入口。这就意味着,让用户无感知的把手机「变成」各种卡来用,作为支付宝钱包这样一个整合的角色,必须与产业链的各方达到无缝协作,平衡各个利益方,还要创造出新的商业模式。」

而且 NFC 手机公交卡每支持一个城市,前提都是与这个城市的公交集团、一卡通公司谈好了合作,技术调试也已完成。比如你在成都,用上小米手机公交卡的进度取决于小米与成都一卡通公司的合作进度和之后的技术调试。这还不是终点——手机厂商每年一旦有新手机上市,都需要将公交卡适配新的机型。

这样逐个谈判、合作,NFC 手机公交卡的覆盖进度当然慢了,即使是小米这样覆盖范围比较广的,也只是支持了十几个城市,算上联合公交卡,覆盖的城市数量也很难超过 100 个。

二维码

虽然二维码已经成为目前中国移动支付的主流,但是不得不吐槽,二维码支付的用户体验确实很一般。尤其是那种贴个收款码,需要你扫码付款的。

你的付款流程是掏出手机,扫码,等待扫码完成,进入付款页面付款,付款完成。而且扫码付款的前提是你的手机必须联网。即使是你出示付款码的方式,体验也不佳。在超市、便利店这种结账经常需要排队的场景中尤为明显,如果排在你前面的人拿出了一台非常老旧的手机,打开个支付宝都需要等待很长时间。

幸运的是,二维码的普及程度已经很高,教育用户的任务已经基本完成,大部分人排队的时候都会提前准备好付款码。再加上支持付款码的扫码枪网速一般都很快,付款的速度已经处于可接受的水平。

这套流程现在已经搬到了公交卡上,但是二维码乘车的普及度远不如支付。当你着急坐地铁赶着上班的时候,排在你前面的都是没怎么用过乘车二维码的人,排队等候的时间会让你很快就放弃二维码,而继续用传统的公交卡。

比如支持支付宝乘车码的杭州地铁,即使是在晚上九点的非乘车高峰时期,支付宝乘车的闸机也排起了长队。反而是用传统公交卡的小哥不用排队就进站了。

图片来源:微博@仓鼠宝宝

支付宝最近正在推进的二维码乘车受益最大的是苹果用户和没有 NFC 的千元机。

Android 手机用的 NFC 手机公交卡一直都没苹果用户什么事,北京地铁 2017 年推广 NFC 乘车的时候,各家新闻标题都在「北京地铁全面支持 NFC」后面加上「iPhone 除外」。二维码终于让 iPhone 用户也能体验到刷手机坐地铁的便利。

用 NFC 还是二维码,最终可能取决于微信支付宝们的站队。

还是以移动支付为例,微信支付宝主导的二维码已经占据超过 90% 的市场比例。

银联云闪付已经在移动支付中「节节败退」——Apple Pay 买个单有很大几率需要输入密码,餐馆和便利店的 POS 机很多还在用 3G 联网,结账速度简直是 NFC 的猪队友。接入支付宝的北京优衣库和无印良品实体店会直接告诉你:「我们不支持手机闪付」。

银联云闪付拿着一手好牌,却还是输了比赛。

同样是银联主导的云闪付刷地铁,也只支持了广州地铁——也只有在广州地铁,Apple Pay 才能扬眉吐气一次。反观 iPhone 市场占有率极高的日本,由于「西瓜卡」的统治地位,刷 iPhone 坐地铁也毫无障碍。

啥?NFC-SIM 也能刷地铁,跟电信运营商绑定的产品,推进速度就更慢了。如果它现在不支持你家的公交系统,说不定再过五年也没有覆盖。而过去这五年的时间里,微信支付宝们已经把二维码支付做到了 90% 的市场份额。

北京地铁部分闸机已经装上了扫码设备

如果人人都是产品经理,

什么是逻辑思维能力?

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