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如何让零起点的群众理解比特币?

2018-2-26 00:45| 投稿: xiaotiger |来自: 互联网

摘要: 在过去的两三个月中,很多人已经被各种比特币和区块链的文章煽动得心浮气躁。并非每个人都是技术极客,但这样一个听上去可以令人一夜暴富的东西,实在令人无法淡定。如果你已经是个比特币或者区块链的老鸟,对相关概 ...

在过去的两三个月中,很多人已经被各种比特币和区块链的文章煽动得心浮气躁。并非每个人都是技术极客,但这样一个听上去可以令人一夜暴富的东西,实在令人无法淡定。

如果你已经是个比特币或者区块链的老鸟,对相关概念了如指掌,哪怕只是自认为已经了如指掌,这篇文章对你而言都过于初级,你可以不用往下读了,以节省时间。

如果你过去阅读了一些文章后,仍然搞不清比特币和区块链是什么东西,或者说你虽然已经持有了某个数字货币,但由于不清楚自己买了个什么而心里没底,那么这篇文章是适合你的。

本文尽可能地迁就小白和零起点读者,因此在概念和用词上力求通俗而非精准。

第一个问题是:比特币和区块链是什么?

你可能听说过币链一体的说法。包括比特币在内的数字货币,都是区块链技术的一种应用。所以为了搞清楚比特币是什么,我们必须先说说区块链是什么。

想象一下,有一群闲的蛋疼的人,一起约定做一个游戏。游戏规则如下:

  1. 游戏里每个人都持有一个钱包,用来存放某种数字货币,我们随便给这个数字货币取个名字,叫SB

  2. 游戏里一部分特别蛋疼的人,除了持有钱包,还负责记账,所以这些人各自都有一个账本

  3. 持有SB的人之间,如果互相转移SB,必须把转账这件事(参与双方、转账时间和转账数额)同时告诉所有记账的人

  4. 记账的人以每十分钟为单位,记录游戏里所有的转账信息,然后根据这些信息做一系列复杂的数学运算

  5. 这一系列复杂的数学运算的目的有两个:一是确保转账信息的真实性,二是用转账信息再加上一个随机数字,继续用数学运算去碰某个特殊的结果(注意是碰,也就是撞大运)

  6. 一旦这个特殊的结果被碰出来,这个记账的人就立刻对其他所有的记账者宣布,他搞定了SB

  7. 大家事先约定,每十分钟能碰出来的SB数量是特定的,所以当大家确认了这个人的计算结果后,承认他拥有这一轮的所有SB,这一轮游戏结束,大家开始下一轮“转账-记账-瞎碰”的游戏

在这个游戏中,记账者负责维护的、记录大家转账和持有SB信息的账本,就是区块链。而SB(代表比特币以及其他数字货币),本身也是账本的一个特殊形式。

如果你还没弄明白账本(区块链)和SB(比特币)的关系,你可以认为这群人约定了一个规则:每经过一个记账周期,大家就开始撕扯账本往地上随机乱扔,谁掉在地上的纸屑凑巧排列成SB的形状,马上高喊“我是XXX,我算出了一个SB,我是SB”,其他人就承认这人是SB,然后把账本粘起来,把谁是SB记下来,继续做下一轮游戏。

所以第二个问题来了:怎么获得比特币之类数字货币?怎么赚钱?

明白了上边的规则,那么参与游戏的方法也很简单:要么作为记账人参加某个“谁是SB”的记账游戏,要么和有钱包的人买卖SB,并且按照规则,把你们的交易过程告诉记账的人,以获得承认。

其实这里还暗含一个问题,即:这个游戏产生的SB,为何会值钱。这个问题的解读很复杂,甚至超过了“什么是SB”这个基础话题。

简单地说,由于参与游戏的人越来越多,而且付出了很多的代价(计算能力),于是很多人希望在游戏世界之外,SB也能有存在的价值。而最早承认SB这类数字货币价值的人,是看中了它不受监管的特点。这些人有游戏发烧友,也有从事一些不可描述生意的大佬。

首先我要打消你自己去参与记账以得到币的念头。你所知道的所有主流的数字货币,其记账过程早就实现了规模化、自动化、技术化。你可能听说过比特币矿场这种丧心病狂的机构,成千上万台专用计算设备在工作,让普通的民间参与者的电脑基本失去了参与记账的意义。

现在数字货币的交易,有很多交易所作为中介在撮合。因此,像股票一样,数字货币也有了公开可查询的价格,和可以购买的场所。不同的是,股市会休市,而数字货币的交易是全年无休的。

总而言之,不管你通过参与记账获得了SB,还是买来了SB,总之你接下来就该期待这东西开始涨价,然后你卖掉就可以赚钱了。当然了,跌价赔钱的可能性也很大。

第三个问题是:我听说有个ICO,更赚钱?

前几年有一个国外的天才少年,在第一代记账游戏的基础上,鼓捣出了一种新的游戏,你可以理解为初代杀人游戏和狼人杀、斗地主和双升的区别。这个游戏规则,被一些组织和个人用来向不特定的人群融资,这个过程叫ICO。

ICO的过程中,参与者通过支付普通的货币或者数字货币,获得了组织者提供的数字股权。而这个数字股权的凭据,也是用特定发行的数字货币来体现,我们可以称为DSB。

如果说在第一代游戏的时候,大家还只是在凭空瞎算来获取SB坐等升值,那么第二代游戏中,大家有一个项目作为价值依靠,以获得DSB作为参股项目的凭据。理论上,DSB的升值空间,取决于项目本身的价值预期。

但在目前的情况下,借助ICO来融资的绝大多数项目,本身并不比“凭空瞎算”更加靠谱。所以第二代游戏和第一代游戏目前并无本质区别,甚至由于面向不特定人群融资而更加恶劣一些,因此在我国,ICO行为已被判定非法。

第四个问题是:你直接告诉我从哪可以买到比特币

我只希望你明白一件事:目前在这一领域,大量骗子、黑客、传销分子在活动。如果你对比特币的理解仅仅是刚读懂这篇文章,那么我建议你不要去购买比特币,否则就是肉包子打狗。

好了,这篇入门级的介绍就到这里。笔者的一位同学对此文亦有贡献,他本硕博从事图像处理、机器学习等方向的研究,博士后工作期间(“博士后”是一段工作经历,而非学历学位),在国内某知名金融机构从事包括区块链在内的金融创新产品的研究。

判官:十四年产品经理工作经验,现专注于社交和商业化产品领域。微信公众号:判官老司机

*文章为作者独立观点,不代表虎嗅网立场

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}, shareInfo: { shareUrl: https://m.toutiao.com/group/6526391223052141060/, abstract: 在过去的两三个月中,很多人已经被各种比特币和区块链的文章煽动得心浮气躁。并非每个人都是技术极客,但这样一个听上去可以令人一夜暴富的东西,实在令人无法淡定。
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